的"Other"农药配方中的成分-舒适生活

的"Other"农药配方中的成分

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看看任何现代商业杀虫剂或除草剂的标签,您'会看到有效和无效的成分清单(也称为"inert" or simply "other") 配料。为了农药标签的目的,"active" ingredients are those chemicals that directly attack the targeted pest, while 惰性的 ingredients are added to help improve the formulation in effectiveness, storage 和 lifespan. For most 农药, the 惰性的 ingredients can compose over 90% of the total volume or weight of the pesticide. It does 没有t, however, mean they are completely safe 和 没有n-toxic to the 恩vironment.

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惰性并不意味着安全

Inert ingredients are included in 农药 to perform a variety of functions, such as promoting better coverage, stickiness to the target, the prevention of foaming, 和 increasing shelf life. Many are included to actually allow the 活性 ingredients to work properly. For instance, many 农药 would be useless without the combination of a particular substance that strips away the protective waxy coat 上 the skin of a plant, or the tough exoskeleton of an insect.

这个单词"inert" 和 its implication that the ingredients do 没有thing implies that they are safe to humans 和 to the 恩vironment. This is 没有t necessarily 真正. Some inactive ingredients are harmless. 其他s are considered 活性 ingredients in 其他 农药. Some can be highly toxic 和 dangerous independent of the 活性 ingredient. 的problem is that you will never know this by reading a pesticide label.

惰性成分标签

Current pesticide regulation in North America requires that all 农药 for sale be labeled with specified information, either by the EPA (United States) or the PMRA (Canada). Pesticides must be labeled with the total percentage of 活性 ingredients, 和 provide an itemized list of the 活性 ingredients.

但是,农药制造商和零售商 不需要 提供逐项列出的非活性成分,但仅需将它们作为大百分比列出。这使得很难或不可能确定不同农药制剂中实际上包含哪些成分。

那么什么是惰性成分呢?

的EPA list of permitted 惰性的 ingredients is over 300页长。这些成分按其毒性水平进行分类-表明农药管理机构意识到惰性成分实际上会引起问题。允许清单上的无效成分范围很广。从安全的家用成分到有害的化学药品,这是一个选择列表:

  • 苯甲酸
  • 蓖麻油
  • 笑气
  • 硫酸
  • 硼酸
  • 乙醇
  • 菜籽油
  • 柴油染料
  • 燃油
  • 芳香石油烃
  • 甲醛

对农药标签上包含非活性成分的宽松要求还允许广告商对其产品作出虚假声明,而没有完全披露产品可能对整体造成的有害影响。

Okay, so some inactive ingredients can be toxic. What happens when an 活性 和 惰性的 chemical is combined?

POEA和草甘膦-致命的结合

的活性 ingredient in the branded product Roundup®是草甘膦。草甘膦是一种通常安全的化学物质,但它确实会对眼睛,皮肤和肺部造成轻微刺激。它不会对水生生物造成已知损害。但是,将无效成分POEA(聚乙氧基牛油胺,一种源自动物脂肪的化学物质)与草甘膦一起制成 对鱼类和两栖动物有极强的毒性. POEA is used in herbicide formulas as a surfactant, helping the 活性 ingredient of the herbicide penetrate the plant. Because POEA is considered an inactive ingredient, its exact percentage in different formulas of glyphosate-based 除草剂 are unknown. Additionally, as an inactive ingredient, it is 没有rmally 没有t even included 上 the label.

要考虑的另一个因素是,大多数农药测试1)仅对活性成分进行测试,而2)在非常受控的环境中进行。这意味着公众'农药的总体感觉是它相对"safe,"很少有人意识到使用不当会发生什么。在综述中®可以将其喷洒在河流,湖泊或池塘的河岸上,以杀死边缘的杂草,但是在水附近的应用也会对水生野生生物造成巨大伤害-可能是流入水中或被污染的土壤径流。 (草甘膦配方与土壤紧密结合,因此受污染土壤的侵蚀也会引起问题。)

A 2006年报告 by Caroline Cox 和 Michael Surgan delves into the details about the effects of 活性 和 惰性的 ingredients combining with each 其他, 和 the 恩vironmental damage 和 persistence they cause.

更改标签做法

Because current labeling regulations do 没有t require companies to list inactive ingredients, there is little data about individual ingredients 和 their specific effects 上 the 恩vironment. Taken as a whole, the studies that do exist suggests that inactive ingredients play a much more damaging role in pesticide activity than previously determined. Complete pesticide formulas need to be tested for toxicity, 和 regulations must be changed so labels include the 恩tire formula, 没有t just the 活性 ingredients.

由Chris Molnar撰写 GoOrganicGardening.com,一个宣传网站 健康的有机园艺堆肥技巧。阅读有关的文章和信息 有机除草剂 和安全的自制农药配方。

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